Operation and maintenance refers to all of the activities needed to run a water supply and Sewerage scheme, except for the construction of new facilities. The overall aim of operation and maintenance is to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of water supply and Sewerage Schemes. The two activities of “operation” and “maintenance” are very different in nature. Operation refers to the routine activities and procedures that are implemented to ensure that the water supply system is working efficiently. The activities that contribute to the operation of a water utility are undertaken by technicians and engineers who have responsibility for controlling the functions of the system .Maintenance, on the other hand, is to do with the technical activities, planned or reactive, which are needed to keep the system working.
Operation and maintenance has been neglected in the past, or been discussed and introduced only after a project was completed. Realizing the fact that this neglect or delay in applying proper operation and maintenance has affected the quality of service offered of the services to a great extent, Operations Unit has been formed in HO to monitor the O&M of water supply and sewerage services and to formulate appropriate policies and operating guidelines as and when required. the importance of O&M has gained considerable visibility ever since the formation of Operations Unit. Some of the main activities carried out by Operations Unit are as follows